Covid-19 Live Updates: Global Tracker

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Prime Minister Boris Johnson of Britain on Monday ordered pubs and bars in the coronavirus-ravaged city of Liverpool to be closed, a move that stoked tensions with local officials and laid bare how the second wave of the pandemic is afflicting England’s north far more seriously than London or the rest of the south.

Mr. Johnson’s measures underscored that Britain is now in the heat of its battle to avert a repeat of last spring’s lethal outbreak. He announced a new three-tier system of restrictions which is designed to simplify what had become a confusing patchwork of targeted lockdowns around the country. But the rigors of this latest campaign are being felt unevenly: 2.4 million people in Liverpool and its suburbs face tough new restrictions while for now, life in London goes on more or less normally.

The plan has infuriated officials in the north of England, who complain that they have been cut out of the government’s deliberations. They say the renewed lockdowns could throttle their economies and betray an election-year promise by Mr. Johnson’s Conservative government to raise prosperity in the economically blighted north to the level of London and the more affluent areas in the south.

“We don’t want to go back to another national lockdown,” Mr. Johnson declared in Parliament. But with cases rising rapidly and more people now hospitalized with the virus than in March, he said it was time to impose more draconian restrictions.

Under the government’s new system, cities or regions will be subject to escalating tiers of lockdown measures, depending on the severity of their outbreaks. Measures in the first tier basically duplicate the most recent restrictions Mr. Johnson announced for the entire country: a ban on social gatherings of more than six people and a curfew of 10 p.m. on bars and restaurants.

The second tier imposes on a ban on socializing by people from different households, while the third and highest tier imposes a lockdown on pubs, gyms, and other nonessential businesses. Schools and offices will remain open, even in places subject to the highest level of restrictions.

But some health experts criticized the latest measures, saying they would neither stamp out the virus nor shield the economy from damage.

Devi Sridhar, the chair of the global public health program at the University of Edinburgh, said the government failed to use the time during its earlier lockdown to put in place an effective test-and-trace program. Unless it remedied that failure now, there was little point to closing pubs or gyms. “It’s a slow strangulation of both the economy and human health,” she said.

The virus is roaring back across much of Europe, where countries are reporting daily cases comparable to — and sometimes far beyond — those of the pandemic’s first peaks.

Britain recorded over 15,000 cases on Saturday alone. France is weighing the possibility of local lockdowns as the country battles a second wave. In Spain, the federal government has used emergency powers to enforce a partial lockdown in Madrid, despite protests. Even Germany, much praised for its testing and contact-tracing capabilities, has reported a rise in infections this month.

Credit…Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The Chinese city of Qingdao is testing all of its 9.5 million residents after it recorded the country’s first locally transmitted cases of the virus in almost two months.

The authorities said that a dozen people in Qingdao, a seaside city in Shandong Province, had tested positive for the virus as of Sunday. Officials said the cases appeared to be linked to the Qingdao Chest Hospital, which has been treating people who test positive for the virus after arriving in China from abroad. The hospital has since been placed under lockdown.

In a sign of the growing alarm over the outbreak, the National Health Commission in Beijing said on Monday that it had dispatched a team to Qingdao to “guide local epidemic prevention and control work.”

The authorities in Qingdao have started a five-day campaign to test the city’s residents. Photographs on social media showed people lining up across the city for tests beginning late Sunday. At least one government notice described the exams as mandatory.

Testing has been crucial to Beijing’s efforts to contain the virus. The government has previously led mass testing campaigns in Wuhan, the original center of the outbreak, and the western region of Xinjiang, where a cluster of cases emerged over the summer.

Life in China has largely returned to normal after widespread lockdowns and other restrictions early this year. The country has reported no local transmissions of the virus since mid-August, attributing all cases to returned travelers in quarantine. Asymptomatic patients are not counted as confirmed cases.

Since the pandemic began, the Chinese mainland has reported more than 94,000 cases and 4,634 deaths, according to a New York Times database.


Credit…Thibault Camus/Associated Press

France is weighing the possibility of local lockdowns as the country battles a second wave of the coronavirus epidemic, Prime Minister Jean Castex said Monday.

Mr. Castex told Franceinfo that France faces an unprecedented surge in cases that is putting increasing pressure on hospitals, saying that many citizens were not taking health warnings seriously.

Nearly 27,000 new infections were reported by health authorities on Saturday — a record — and the rate of positive results from testing passed 11 percent. The number of deaths is increasing at a higher rate than over the summer, though much more slowly than in the spring, and hospitalizations, including in intensive care units, are rising.

“Nothing can be excluded when one sees the situation in our hospitals,” Mr. Castex said when asked if authorities might put certain cities or regions under lockdown.

But Mr. Castex denied suggestions that France’s testing and tracing strategy had failed, castigating the French instead for failing to heed health warnings.

Mr. Castex said the country had ended a period of confinement “efficiently,” referring to May, when France’s nationwide lockdown ended. “And then the holidays arrived and we — the French, collectively — believed that it was over, that it was behind us.”

He added that the people of France believed that the threat had disappeared, “a bit too quickly, despite our warning about the fact that we had to live with the virus.”

About 500 checks were carried out in the Paris area over the weekend and police found nearly 100 bars and restaurants flouting new health restrictions, Mr. Castex said. In Paris, the number of cases per 100,000 residents has surpassed 800 for people aged 20 to 30 years old — sixteen times the government-set alert level.

“We aren’t doing this to bother them, we are doing this to protect them,” Mr. Castex said of the restrictions. But he ruled out limits on private gatherings with friends and family, calling it legally impossible under French law and contrary to the country’s values.

Mr. Castex also announced that a new version of France’s official contact tracing app, StopCovid, would be released on Oct. 22. The current version has helped to identify only a handful of cases.

In other global developments:

  • In South Korea, masks will be mandatory in public starting on Tuesday even as social distancing measures are eased. After a 30-day grace period, people over age 14 who fail to wear masks could be fined as much as 100,000 won, or $87. Social-distancing measures will be reduced to their lowest level as of Monday as a second outbreak of infections appears to wane. Nightclubs, bars and karaoke parlors will be allowed to reopen and spectators will be able to go back to sports stadiums. South Korea reported 97 new cases on Monday, slightly higher than the increase most days last week.

  • New Zealand on Monday announced its first deal for a potential coronavirus vaccine, agreeing to buy 1.5 million doses from the American pharmaceutical company Pfizer and the German biotechnology company BioNTech if their product succeeds. Officials did not say how much it cost to buy the vaccine, which could be available early next year. With each person expected to require two doses, there would be enough to inoculate 750,000 of New Zealand’s five million people. Megan Woods, the research minister, said that the government was in negotiations with other drug makers and that there would be more announcements next month.

  • Iran on Monday announced its highest single-day death toll from the virus for the second day in a row, with 272 new victims, The Associated Press reported. The country surpassed 500,000 cases on Sunday, and two of its vice presidents, Mohammad Bagher Nobakht and Ali Akbar Salehi — who is also Iran’s nuclear chief — are the latest senior officials to test positive for the virus, the semiofficial Tasnim news agency reported.

  • The president of French Polynesia tested positive for the virus two days after meeting in Paris with the president of France, Emmanuel Macron, according to the French newspaper Le Monde. The office of President Edouard Fritch said in a statement that he was tested after he returned to Tahiti and complained of fever and pain. Mr. Macron’s office said that he would not have to quarantine because the two leaders had followed strict mask and distancing protocols.

Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

Officials with President Trump’s campaign told reporters on Monday that the final stretch of the race would be more frenetic than ever for the president as he tries to make up time he lost battling the coronavirus.

Ahead of Mr. Trump’s return to the campaign trail Monday in Florida, with trips to Pennsylvania, Iowa and North Carolina scheduled for the three following days, aides previewed what they presented as a mad sprint to Nov. 3 and said they had no concerns about the candidate’s health or stamina.

“This morning, in our morning conversation, he was getting on my case for not having enough rallies,” said Jason Miller, the campaign’s senior strategist. He said the president’s schedule would include “two to three events a day, and that will grow as we get closer to Election Day.”

Bill Stepien, the campaign manager, who himself was returning to work just 10 days after testing positive for the virus, said the president’s packed calendar “reflects his health and well being. It’s going to be a big shot in the arm for the campaign.”

Mr. Stepien said that he had been free of symptoms for the entire 10 days and that his decision to return to work was in line with guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He did not say whether or not he had tested negative for the virus.

“We take a lot of precautions at headquarters here,” Mr. Stepien said. The pronouncement came as Mark Meadows, the White House chief of staff who has been around the president in recent days, was spotted on Capitol Hill refusing to speak to reporters through a mask.

The White House physician has not released results of Mr. Trump’s most recent test, which he says he took on Friday, though the president said on Sunday that he had tested “totally negative.”

That may not be enough time to protect people Mr. Trump comes in contact with. Anyone who tests positive for the coronavirus should quarantine for at least 10 days after showing symptoms, to avoid spreading the infection to others, according to the C.D.C. The agency recommends a longer period of isolation for people who have had severe cases.

Overall, the Trump campaign team expressed confidence, even as polls show Joseph R. Biden Jr. with significant leads in several battleground states.

Mr. Miller also said that recent cuts in television advertising in key states like Ohio were not a sign of concern over cash flow, but rather indicated the campaign’s confidence there that they felt they could pull down ad buys with just three weeks to go in the race. He said the campaign was making new ad buys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Florida and Nevada this week.

And he reminded reporters that a spending advantage in 2016 did not deliver a win for Hillary Clinton.

One weakness Mr. Stepien acknowledged parenthetically was the president’s dip with older voters, one of his most crucial constituencies. Mr. Stepien said that “every campaign changes from election to re-election” and claimed that losses with older voters would be “offset by gains in certain voting populations,” including Black and Hispanic voters.


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The Senate on Monday began the confirmation hearing for Judge Amy Coney Barrett, President Trump’s choice to fill the Supreme Court seat of the late Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.CreditCredit…Erin Schaff/The New York Times

A deeply divided Senate Judiciary Committee kicked off four days of confirmation hearings on Monday for Judge Amy Coney Barrett, President Trump’s nominee for the Supreme Court, drawing battle lines that could reverberate through the election.

The hearings looked unlike any other in modern history, thanks to the coronavirus pandemic. Republicans insisted on proceeding despite an outbreak in Washington that appears to be linked to the crowded White House ceremony two weeks ago where Mr. Trump introduced Judge Barrett as his nominee. The president and most other attendees at the gathering were maskless. Mr. Trump has since tested positive for the virus, as have several other guests.

At least two Republican senators on the Judiciary Committee, Mike Lee of Utah and Thom Tillis of North Carolina, also tested positive after attending the event. Mr. Lee was on hand in the hearing room on Monday morning, having met the “criteria to end Covid-19 isolation for those with mild to moderate disease” according to a letter he received from the attending physician of Congress, Dr. Brian P. Monahan.

The hearings were led by Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, the Judiciary Committee chairman, who has refused to be retested. Democrats called for a postponement, but were rebuffed.

The proceedings played out partly by video to allow senators who may be sick or worried about infection to participate remotely. A few senators, including Senators Kamala Harris of California, the Democratic nominee for vice president, Senator Patrick Leahy, Democrat of Vermont, and Mr. Tillis were remote for the hearing on Monday.

Ms. Harris used her opening remarks to lash Senate Republicans for rushing through a Supreme Court nomination even as millions of Americans are still suffering from the effects of the coronavirus pandemic.

“This hearing should have been postponed,” Ms. Harris said. She called the decision to hold the proceeding “reckless.” During a time when “tens of millions of Americans are struggling to pay their bills, the Senate should be prioritizing coronavirus relief and providing financial support to those families,” she said.

Senator Ted Cruz, Republican of Texas, also joined remotely as he finished out a period of self-quarantining after coming into contact with Mr. Lee.

No members of the public were allowed in the hearing room, which was sparsely populated with senators and spectators.

Should any more Republican senators fall ill, it could complicate Judge Barrett’s chances of confirmation. Two members of the party, Senators Susan Collins of Maine and Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, are opposed to proceeding before Election Day, and Republicans, who control the Senate by a 53-to-47 majority, can afford to lose only one more vote.

Credit…Anna Moneymaker for The New York Times

The gap between the Democrats’ proposed $2.2 trillion relief package and the White House’s $1.8 trillion offer may look relatively small, in the grand scheme of things. But an agreement on the aid that many say is needed to keep the economic recovery on track seems remote despite frenzied talks in recent days.

Here’s a quick catch-up on the back and forth, courtesy of today’s DealBook newsletter:

Oct. 6: “I have instructed my representatives to stop negotiating until after the election,” Mr. Trump tweeted. A few hours later, he said he was willing to sign stand-alone bills that would finance stimulus checks, small-business loans and airline aid. Jerome H. Powell, the Federal Reserve chair, warned of “tragic” consequences if no stimulus was forthcoming. The S&P 500 fell 1.4 percent.

Oct. 7: “Move Fast, I Am Waiting To Sign!” Mr. Trump tweeted at Nancy Pelosi, the House speaker. The S&P rose 1.7 percent.

Oct. 8: Analysts start pricing in better odds of a deal getting done. The S&P rose 0.8 percent.

Oct. 9: “Covid Relief Negotiations are moving along. Go Big!” Mr. Trump tweeted. He said he was inclined to be more generous than either Democrats or Republicans, but Mitch McConnell, the Senate majority leader, said a deal was “unlikely in the next three weeks.” No matter: The S&P rose 0.9 percent, ending a tumultuous week with a gain of about 4 percent.

Oct. 10: Ms. Pelosi wrote a letter calling Republican proposals “insufficient,” although she remained “hopeful” that a deal could be struck. For their part, some Senate Republicans complained that a big spending package could cost them seats among fiscally conservative voters.

Oct. 11: The White House chief of staff, Mark Meadows, and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin wrote to lawmakers urging them to “come together and immediately vote on a bill,” tapping unused funds from the first round of stimulus. Ms. Pelosi wrote another letter saying that talks were at an “impasse,” with disagreements over the nature of the aid rather than the size of the bill. On Fox News, Mr. Trump said “Republicans want to do it” and blamed Ms. Pelosi for the stalemate.

Oct. 12: At the time of writing, stock futures are up in premarket trading. Hope springs eternal.

Credit…Michael A. McCoy for The New York Times

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the U.S. government’s top infectious disease expert, took issue Sunday with a decision by the Trump campaign to feature him in an advertisement without his consent and said it had misrepresented his comments.

“I was totally surprised,” Dr. Fauci said. “The use of my name and my words by the G.O.P. campaign was done without my permission, and the actual words themselves were taken out of context, based on something that I said months ago regarding the entire effort of the task force.”

CNN first reported Dr. Fauci’s displeasure with the campaign ad.

The spot seeks to use Mr. Trump’s illness with Covid-19 and apparent recovery to improve the negative image many Americans have of his handling of the coronavirus.

“I can’t imagine that anybody could be doing more,” the ad shows Dr. Fauci saying — though in fact he was talking about the broader government effort.

Dr. Fauci, who said he had never publicly endorsed a political candidate in decades of public work, has long had an uneasy relationship with President Trump. Just a little over a week ago, he clashed with his boss over his position on mask-wearing.

In his debate with former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., Mr. Trump claimed that Dr. Fauci had initially said “masks are not good — then he changed his mind.” When Mr. Biden said wearing masks could save tens of thousands of lives, Mr. Trump contended that “Dr. Fauci said the opposite.”

In fact, in the early days of the pandemic, Dr. Fauci and other health experts discouraged the general public from rushing out to buy masks because they were worried about shortages for health workers. Their position changed when it became clear that asymptomatic transmission was spreading the virus.

Dr. Fauci may favor measured language, but his criticisms of the White House — and, implicitly, the man in the Oval Office — over the handling of the pandemic have not gone unnoticed, including by hard-core Trump supporters who claim he is part of a “deep state” conspiracy to undermine the president.

On Friday, Dr. Fauci called the White House ceremony announcing Judge Amy Coney Barrett’s nomination to the Supreme Court a “superspreader event.”

“It was in a situation where people were crowded together and not wearing masks,” he said. “The data speak for themselves.”

Judge Barrett’s confirmation hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee begins on Monday. The proceedings will play out partially by video to allow senators who may be sick or worried about infection to participate remotely. No members of the public will be allowed in the hearing room, which will be sparsely populated with senators and spectators.

Credit…Adriana Zehbrauskas for The New York Times

President Trump said over the weekend that the experimental medication he was given to fight his Covid-19 infection was “standard, pretty routine.” It seems likely it will be anything but should it ever reach the market.

There is not nearly enough of the drug that Mr. Trump called a “cure” and promised to distribute free to Americans who might need it, the chief executive of Regeneron, the drug’s maker, said on Sunday.

Currently, there are enough doses to treat 50,000 patients, the company has said. On Saturday alone, there were more than 51,000 new infections reported in the United States, according to a New York Times database.

“We have to figure out ways to ration this,” Dr. Leonard S. Schleifer, the co-founder and chief executive of Regeneron, said on the CBS program “Face the Nation.”

Dr. Schleifer said the company was still in discussions with the administration about who may be first to receive the cocktail of monoclonal antibodies given the president, and when. The treatment has not been approved by the F.D.A., but the White House is pushing the agency to grant an emergency use authorization.

When the president spoke about his treatments on the Fox News program “Sunday Morning Future,” he said, “The medications that I took were standard, pretty routine.”

In fact, he received a cutting-edge combination treatment: remdesivir, an antiviral medication; dexamethasone, a steroid only recently shown to reduce death rates in severe cases; and the Regeneron drug.

Mr. Trump also said during the Fox News interview that he was immune and now “totally free of spreading” the virus. When he repeated the claim on Twitter, the platform added a label saying that the tweet violated Twitter’s rules about spreading misleading and potentially harmful information related to Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus.

Credit…Mark Abramson for The New York Times

The New York City authorities cracked down over the weekend on some coronavirus hot spots, issuing more than 60 summonses and tens of thousands of dollars in fines to people, businesses and houses of worship that did not follow newly imposed restrictions on gatherings or were found violating mask and social-distancing requirements.

Among those issued a summons by the New York City sheriff were a restaurant and at least five houses of worship in the city’s “red zones,” where infection rates are the highest. Each of those locations was given a summons that could result in up to $15,000 in fines, said Sheriff Joseph Fucito.

In total, officials issued 62 tickets and more than $150,000 in fines during the first weekend the new restrictions were in effect, the city said on Sunday.

New York is wrestling with its most acute pandemic crisis since the virus first swept through the five boroughs in March. City and state officials say that large gatherings and lax social distancing have been causing a surge in new cases in pockets of Brooklyn and Queens, many of them in Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods.

The spike prompted Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo to issue new restrictions on large gatherings and nonessential businesses in some parts of the city. Some religious leaders expressed staunch opposition to the crackdown.

The moment has set an already anxious city on edge, particularly as doctors, experts and health officials express growing concern about a second wave of the virus this winter. It also foreshadows the challenges city officials may face as they try to quash emerging hot spots in small communities before the virus can spread into the rest of the city.

Credit…Jeremy M. Lange for The New York Times

Millions of American children are encountering all sorts of inconveniences that come with digital instruction during the coronavirus pandemic. But many students are facing a more basic challenge: They don’t have computers and can’t attend classes held online.

A worldwide surge in demand by educators for low-cost laptops and Chromebooks — up to 41 percent higher than last year — has created monthslong shipment delays and pitted desperate schools against one another. Districts with deep pockets often win out, leaving poorer ones to give out printed assignments and wait until winter for new computers to arrive.

That has frustrated many students, especially in rural areas and communities of color, which also often lack high-speed internet access and are most likely to be on the losing end of the digital divide. In 2018, 10 million students didn’t have an adequate device at home, a study found. That gap, with much of the country still learning remotely, could now be crippling.

“The learning loss that’s taken place since March when they left, when schools closed, it’ll take years to catch up,” said Angie Henry, chief operations officer for Guilford County Schools in North Carolina. “This could impact an entire generation of our students.”

For about a month, Samantha Moore’s four school-age children shared one iPad provided by the Guilford district and took turns going to class. Their grades have suffered as a result, she said. Eric Cole, who teaches Ms. Moore’s 13-year-old son, Raymond Heller, eventually secured more tablets for the family and other students through his church.

Sellers are facing stunning demand from schools in countries from Germany to El Salvador, said Michael Boreham, an education technology analyst at the British company Futuresource Consulting. Japan alone is expected to order seven million devices.

Global computer shipments to schools were up 24 percent from 2019 in the second quarter, Mr. Boreham said, and were projected to hit that 41 percent jump in the third quarter, which just ended.

Credit…Elisabeth Ubbe for The New York Times

In today’s edition of the Morning newsletter, David Leonhardt examines Sweden’s unconventional efforts in confronting the virus:

The White House event to celebrate Amy Coney Barrett’s Supreme Court nomination — a gathering that appears to have spread the coronavirus — would have violated the law in Sweden.

It was too large. More than 200 people attended the Barrett celebration. In Sweden, public events cannot include more than 50 people. Anyone who organizes a larger gathering is subject to a fine or up to six months in prison.

If you’ve been following the virus news out of Sweden, this fact may surprise you. Sweden has become notorious for its laissez-faire response. Its leaders refused to impose a lockdown in the spring, insisting that doing so was akin to “using a hammer to kill a fly.” They also actively discouraged mask wearing.

Ever since, people in other countries who favor a more lax approach have held up Sweden as a model. Recently, as new cases have surged in other European countries, some of Sweden’s defenders have claimed vindication.

How are you supposed to make sense of all this? Several readers have asked me that question, and the answers point to some lessons for fighting the virus. I think there are three key ones from Sweden:

1. It is not a success story. Over all, Sweden’s decision to let many activities continue unabated and its hope that growing immunity to the virus would protect people does not look good. The country has suffered more than five times as many deaths per capita as neighboring Denmark and about 10 times as many as Finland or Norway.

“It was a terrible idea to do what they did,” Janet Baseman, an epidemiologist at the University of Washington, told me.

Credit…By The New York Times | Sources: Johns Hopkins University, World Bank

2. But Sweden did more than some people realize. It closed schools for students ages 16 and older. It encouraged residents to keep their distance from one another. And it imposed the ban on big gatherings, which looks especially smart now.

Compared with other viruses, this one seems especially likely to spread in clusters. Many infected people don’t infect a single other person, while “as few as 10 to 20 percent of infected people may be responsible for as much as 80 to 90 percent of transmission,” The Atlantic’s Zeynep Tufekci has explained.

Given this, it’s less surprising that Sweden’s recent virus performance looks mediocre rather than horrible.

Credit…By The New York Times | Sources: Johns Hopkins University, World Bank

3. Swedish officials have been right to worry about “sustainability.” Strict lockdowns bring their own steep costs for society. With a vaccine at least months away, societies probably need to grapple with how to restart activities while minimizing risk.

Sweden’s leaders do not seem to have found the ideal strategy, but they are asking a reasonable question. “We see a disease that we’re going to have to handle for a long time,” Anders Tegnell, Sweden’s top epidemiologist, told The Financial Times, “and we need to build up systems for doing that.”

The fact that Sweden is no longer an extreme outlier in new virus cases — even as life there looks more normal than in most places — offers a new opportunity to assess risk.

Credit…Charles Sykes/Invision, via Associated Press

In July, one infectious disease expert said Walt Disney World’s reopening was a “terrible idea” that was “inviting disaster.” Social media users attacked Disney as “irresponsible” and “clueless” for pressing forward, even as coronavirus cases surged in Florida. A few aghast onlookers turned Disney World marketing videos into parody trailers for horror films.

Attendance has been lower than anticipated. Travel agents say families have been postponing Christmastime plans to vacation at the Orlando-area resort, in part because of concerns about the safety of flying. In recent days, Disney World, citing continued uncertainty about the duration of the pandemic, began laying off 15,550 workers, or 20 percent of its work force.

As tumultuous as the three months since the reopening have been, however, public health officials and Disney World’s unions say there have been no coronavirus outbreaks among workers or guests. So far, Disney’s wide-ranging safety measures appear to be working.

“We have no issues or concerns with the major theme parks at this point,” said Dr. Raul Pino, director of the Florida Department of Health in Orange County, which includes Disney World.

Disney declined to say how many Disney World employees had tested positive for the coronavirus since the resort reopened in July. In phone interviews, union leaders said cases had been minimal.

“We’ve had very few, and none, as far as we can tell, have been from work-related exposure,” said Eric Clinton, president of UNITE HERE Local 362, which represents roughly 8,000 attraction workers and custodians.

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