A close study of the hunger hormone ghrelin shows that it affects how frequently animals eat; without it, they may forget when they last ate — ScienceDaily

A hormone that influences when and how frequently animals eat also appears to affect memory, USC scientists have found.

The study was published in the journal Current Biology on Sept. 17.

Animals and humans have the hormone ghrelin in their stomachs. Ghrelin tells animals, as well as humans, when they are hungry and helps regulate their metabolism, but scientists have never been certain how exactly it works.

To learn more about how ghrelin influences hunger, metabolism and memory, researchers at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences collaborated with international scientists on a study on rats.

They disrupted the ability of the ghrelin hormone to communicate to the vagus nerve, a nerve that signals from the gut to the brain, and then monitored the impact on their feeding and cognitive behaviors.

The rats were not anxious, but they began eating more frequently, said the study’s lead and corresponding

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Animals Feed Market | Increasing Number of Product Launches to Boost the Market Growth

The global animals feed market size is poised to grow by USD 92.79 billion during 2020-2024, progressing at a CAGR of almost 4% throughout the forecast period, according to the latest report by Technavio. The report offers an up-to-date analysis regarding the current market scenario, latest trends and drivers, and the overall market environment. The report also provides the market impact and new opportunities created due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Download a Free Sample of REPORT with COVID-19 Crisis and Recovery Analysis.

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201009005424/en/

Technavio has announced its latest market research report titled Global Animal Feed Market 2020-2024 (Graphic: Business Wire)

The increasing number of product launches will be a significant factor in driving the growth of the animal feed market size. The global animal feed market is witnessing a growing number of product launches by vendors operating in the market.

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The first carnival of the animals and Early Palaeozoic marine life

Some of the world’s leading academics are discussing their work in a series of webinars organised by Durham University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

The series, Knowledge Across Borders, will bring together researchers who are outstanding in their fields of expertise to stimulate new, creative and critical thinking, open up new perspectives across cultures, deepen collaboration and share fresh insights.

The webinars will cover areas such as palaeontology, astronomy and science and technology as well as addressing interdisciplinary challenges.

The first webinar will be held on Thursday 29 October and will be presented by leading palaeontologists, Professor David Harper (Durham University) and Professor Renbin Zhan (Chinese Academy of Sciences/Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology).

Titled ‘The first carnival of the animals: Causes and consequences of the diversification of Early Palaeozoic marine life’, they will discuss how life has been evolving on our planet for some four billion years but

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Why There Are More Animals From North America In South America Than Vice Versa

KEY POINTS

  • There was an exchange of animals from North and South America during the GABI
  • Why there were more animals of North American origin in South America than vice versa has been a mystery
  • A team of researchers may have found an explanation for the disparity
  • It’s possible that many South American mammals actually went extinct

Why are there more South American animals of North American origins than North American animals of South American origin? A team of researchers found a possible explanation for the long-held puzzle.

The American continents weren’t always connected but tens of millions of years ago when the land bridge of Panama formed and connected North and South America, there was an exchange of animals between the once separated lands. Called the Great American Biotic Exchange (GABI), it is considered as one of the greatest biogeographical events.

However, one thing that has been puzzling paleontologists

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Rescuers release 108 surviving animals

A total of 108 surviving pilot whales have been released back into the sea after a mass stranding in Australia, marine experts say.

They believe Macquarie Harbour on Tasmania’s west coast is now clear of live whales.

But about 350 whales died in what is Australia’s worst stranding on record.

Now attention has turned to disposal of the carcasses, with 15 buried at sea on Friday in a trial to test the success of that method.

A statement released by the Tasmanian government on Saturday confirmed that 108 long-finned pilot whales which had survived the stranding had been released outside the heads at Macquarie Harbour.

Marine Conservation Program wildlife biologist Dr Kris Carlyon called it a fantastic outcome after five days of hard work by the rescue team.

“We only had one whale restrand overnight, which is a good result given 20 whales were released yesterday,” Dr Carlyon said.

At

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Researchers used miniature microscopes to conduct first-ever study of astrocyte calcium activity in sleep in freely behaving animals — ScienceDaily

A new study published today in the journal Current Biology suggests that star-shaped brain cells known as astrocytes could be as important to the regulation of sleep as neurons, the brain’s nerve cells.

Led by researchers at Washington State University’s Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, the study builds new momentum toward ultimately solving the mystery of why we sleep and how sleep works in the brain. The discovery may also set the stage for potential future treatment strategies for sleep disorders and neurological diseases and other conditions associated with troubled sleep, such as PTSD, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, and autism spectrum disorder.

“What we know about sleep has been based largely on neurons,” said lead author and postdoctoral research associate Ashley Ingiosi. Neurons, she explained, communicate through electrical signals that can be readily captured through electroencephalography (EEG). Astrocytes — a type of glial (or “glue”) cell that interacts with neurons

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You wouldn’t hit a dog, so why kill one in Minecraft? Why violence against virtual animals is an ethical issue

Violence against animals in video games is ubiquitous. Players can kill or torture animals in various popular games, including Minecraft and Grand Theft Auto V. The rise of this (increasingly realistic) trend in games, along with people’s tendency to go along with it, raises important questions.


Violence against humans in video games has long been contentious—underpinned by the never-ending debate over whether on-screen violence begets the real thing. But violence against animals in video games has attracted considerably less attention.

In a recently published paper, we argue there is good reason to think violence against animals in video games is problematic—perhaps even more so than in-game violence against humans. We think game violence against animals is more likely to promote disrespect for their living counterparts.

The jury is out

In 2005, Australia banned a first-person shooter game called Postal 2, in which players could mutilate and desecrate (virtual) human bodies.

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Australia to euthanise stranded animals

Several surviving pilot whales beached in a mass stranding in Tasmania will be euthanised as they cannot be saved, officials have said.

Some 380 whales have already died in Australia’s worst stranding on record.

Rescuers have refloated 70 of the animals and say and there is hope for another 20.

But they have said four surviving whales that are too exhausted to be saved will have to be killed as it is “the most humane thing to do”.

“These are animals we’ve given a chance, we’ve tried to release them but they haven’t done well,” Kris Carlyon with the Marine Conservation Project explained.

Rescuers were hoping to escort more whales back into the ocean on Wednesday
Rescuers were hoping to escort more whales back into the ocean on Wednesday

He said there was no viable chance to successfully release them again and “in this case the best, most human course of action is to euthanise”.

The four animals in question have been assessed

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Animals lose fear of predators rapidly after they start encountering humans — ScienceDaily

Most wild animals show a suite of predator avoidance behaviors such as vigilance, freezing, and fleeing. But these are quickly reduced after the animals come into contact with humans through captivity, domestication, or urbanization, according to a study led by Benjamin Geffroy from MARBEC (Institute of Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation), publishing September 22nd in the open-access journal PLOS Biology.

The international team of researchers analyzed the results of 173 peer-reviewed studies investigating antipredator traits (behavioral and physiological) in 102 species of domesticated, captive, and urbanized mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and molluscs, while taking into account their position in the Tree of Life.

The scientists found that contact with humans led to a rapid loss of animals antipredator traits, but simultaneously the variability between individuals initially increases and then gradually decreases over the generations in contact with human. The authors suppose that this two-step process is caused by reduced

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New theory predicts movement of different animals using sensing to search — ScienceDaily

All animals great and small live every day in an uncertain world. Whether you are a human being or an insect, you rely on your senses to help you navigate and survive in your world. But what drives this essential sensing?

Unsurprisingly, animals move their sensory organs, such as eyes, ears and noses, while they are searching. Picture a cat swiveling its ears to capture important sounds without needing to move its body. But the precise position and orientation these sense organs take over time during behavior is not intuitive, and current theories do not predict these positions and orientations well.

Now a Northwestern University research team has developed a new theory that can predict the movement of an animal’s sensory organs while searching for something vital to its life.

The researchers applied the theory to four different species which involved three different senses (including vision and smell) and found

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