Relationship value and economic value are evaluated by the same part of the brain — ScienceDaily

Wishing a friend happy birthday or spending a long period of time listening to their problems signifies commitment to the friendship. In other words, these actions serve as commitment signals (*1) and it is known that people value their relationships more with others who behave this way towards them.

Researchers from several Japanese universities have revealed that the orbitofrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for calculating economic value, is also responsible for judging the value of relationships with friends based on the received commitment signals.

The research group consisted of Professor OHTSUBO Yohsuke (Graduate School of Humanities, Kobe University), Professor OHIRA Hideki (Graduate School of Informatics, Nagoya University), Aichi Medical University’s Lecturer MATSUNAGA Masahiro (and the Department of Health and Psychosocial Medicine research team), and Lecturer HIMICHI Toshiyuki (Kochi University of Technology).

These findings were published in the online edition of ‘Social Neuroscience’ on September 25.

Main Points

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Teen brain differences linked to increased waist circumference — ScienceDaily

Differences in the microstructure of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a region in the brain that plays an important role in processing food and other reward stimuli, predict increases in indicators of obesity in children, according to a study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and nine other institutes, all part of the National Institutes of Health. The paper, published today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is based on data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. The ABCD Study will follow nearly 12,000 children through early adulthood to assess factors that influence individual brain development and other health outcomes.

Findings from this study provide the first evidence of microstructural brain differences that are linked to waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in children. These microstructural differences in cell density could be indicative of inflammatory processes triggered by a diet

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Finding a better route to treating social anxiety disorder may lie in another part of the brain, researchers suggest — ScienceDaily

Studies have long suggested that oxytocin — a hormone that can also act as a neurotransmitter — regulates prosocial behavior such as empathy, trust and bonding, which led to its popular labeling as the “love hormone.” Mysteriously, oxytocin has also been shown to play a role in antisocial behaviors and emotions, including reduced cooperation, envy and anxiety. How oxytocin could exert such opposite roles had largely remained a mystery, but a new UC Davis study sheds light on how this may work.

Working with California mice, UC Davis researches showed that the “love hormone” oxytocin can sometimes have antisocial effects depending on where in the brain it is made. (Mark Chappell/UC Riverside)

While most oxytocin is produced in an area of the brain known as the hypothalamus, some oxytocin is produced in another brain area known as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, or BNST. The BNST is known

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Study Finds Preserved Brain Material In Vesuvius Victim

Brain cells have been found in exceptionally preserved form in the remains of a young man killed in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius almost 2,000 years ago, an Italian study has revealed.

The preserved neuronal structures in vitrified or frozen form were discovered at the archaeological site of Herculaneum, an ancient Roman city engulfed under a hail of volcanic ash after nearby Mount Vesuvius erupted in the year 79.

Intact brain cells discovered in skull of man killed in Vesuvius eruption Intact brain cells discovered in skull of man killed in Vesuvius eruption Photo: Pier Paolo Petrone

“The study of vitrified tissue as the one we found at Herculaneum… may save lives in future,” study lead author Pier Paolo Petrone, forensic anthropologist at Naples’ University Federico II, told AFP in English.

“The experimentation continues on several research fields, and the data and information we are obtaining will allow us to clarify other and newer aspects of what happened 2000 years ago during

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Millimeter-precision drug delivery to the brain — ScienceDaily

Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method for concentrating and releasing drugs in the brain with pinpoint accuracy. This could make it possible in the future to deliver psychiatric and cancer drugs and other medications only to those regions of the brain where this is medically desirable.

Today, this is practically impossible — drugs travelling through the bloodstream reach the entire brain and body, which in some cases causes side effects. The new method is non-invasive, with precise drug delivery in the brain controlled from outside the head using ultrasound. Mehmet Fatih Yanik, Professor of Neurotechnology, and his team of scientists have published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

In order to prevent a drug from acting on the entire brain and body, the new method involves special drug carriers that wrap the drugs in spherical lipid vesicles attached to gas-containing ultrasound-?sensitive microbubbles. These are injected into

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Preserved Brain Cells Still Visible In Victim Of Ancient Vesuvius Eruption

KEY POINTS

  • A group of scientists discovered brain tissues intact in ancient human remains 
  • Claims in the new study remain open for debate among other experts
  • The finding adds to astounding discoveries related to the historic  Mount Vesuvius eruption

Frozen neurons remain visible in the brain of a victim of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius that took place in 79 A.D. The structure of the brain tissues, including spinal cords, are still intact at present, new research has claimed.

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius is a significant occurrence in the world’s history. The incident covered several Roman cities with thick ashes and molten rock, including Pompeii in Italy. The tragedy would have turned everything in ashes. However, bodies were preserved underneath, like they were frozen in time.

In a new study published in the journal PLOS One, a team of researchers said the neurons and remains of the spinal cords

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Preserved Brain Tissue Found in Victim of Ancient Vesuvius Eruption, Scientists Report

Herculaneum, as it appears today.

Herculaneum, as it appears today.
Image: Pier Paolo Petrone

The catastrophic eruption of Mount Vesuvius nearly 2,000 years ago is famous for preserving its many victims in volcanic ash. New research suggests this preservation extends to the cellular level, owing to the apparent discovery of neurons in a victim whose brain was turned to glass during the eruption.

New research published today in PLOS One describes the discovery of neuronal tissue in vitrified brain and spinal cord remains belonging to a victim of the Mount Vesuvius eruption, which blew its stack in 79 CE.

“The discovery of brain tissue in ancient human remains is an unusual event,” Pier Paolo Petrone, a forensic anthropologist at University Federico II in Italy and the lead author of the new study, said in a press release. “But what is extremely rare is the integral preservation of neuronal structures of a 2,000-year-old central nervous

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AIDP and Andy Khawaja are Creating AI Technology that Collaborates with the Human Brain

Artificial Intelligence Defense Platform, a technology start-up creating AI technology for a safer, more comfortable future, and its Founder Andy Khawaja are creating AI technology that will collaborate with the human brain, creating faster, more advanced thought processes and diagnostic tools.

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201002005063/en/

Andy Khawaja and AIDP plan to unlock new human capabilities. (Photo: Business Wire)

Foglets.com says, “the human brain operates at 1 exaFLOP, which is equivalent to a billion billion calculations per second.” They describe the human brain as a “tangled, seemingly random mess of neurons that do not behave in a predictable manner.”

AIDP is working on its pioneer program “ISABELLA” that will pair AI technology with the human brain. They claim that collaborating the two will unlock new capabilities in every human aspect. As a place to start, they will explore AI and human collaboration in critical

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Air Street Capital: AI industry remains strong despite academic brain drain, tech nationalization

London-based venture capital firm Air Street Capital today published the State of AI Report 2020, its third annual survey canvassing research, talent, industrial, and political trends in the field of AI. Coauthored by University College London visiting professor Ian Hogarth and AI investor Nathan Benaich, the report aims to highlight technological breakthroughs and areas of commercial application for AI as well as the regulation of AI, its economic implications, and emerging geopolitical issues.

Among other findings, this year’s report implies AI remains mostly closed source, harming accountability and reproducibility, while corporate-driven academic “brain drain” appears to be impacting entrepreneurship. Self-driving cars are in the Precambrian stages. And political leaders are beginning to question whether acquisitions of AI startups should be scrutinized or outright blocked.

AI research

According to Air Street Capital’s report, only 15% of AI research papers publish their code, and there’s been little improvement on the metric since

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New method developed to help scientists understand how the brain processes color — ScienceDaily

Through the development of new technology, University of Minnesota researchers have developed a method that allows scientists to understand how a fruit fly’s brain responds to seeing color. Prior to this, being able to determine how a brain responds to color was limited to humans and animals with slower visual systems. A fruit fly, when compared to a human, has a visual system that is five times faster. Some predatory insects see ten times faster than humans.

“If we can understand how seeing color affects the brain, we will be able to better understand how different animals react to certain stimuli,” said Trevor Wardill, the study’s lead author and assistant professor in the College of Biological Sciences. “In doing so, we will know what interests them most, how it impacts their behavior, and what advantages different color sensitivities may give to an individual’s or a species’ survival.”

Published in Scientific

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