High radiation on moon means lunar bases should be buried for safety

  • NASA recently unveiled the plan for its Artemis program, a series of missions that would return astronauts to the moon. 
  • A new study reveals how much radiation astronauts are exposed to on the lunar surface: a daily dose about 200 times greater than on Earth.
  • NASA wants to build a base on the moon, but the new data suggests it’d be safest to bury such a base under 2.5 feet of moon dirt to protect astronauts from radiation. 
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

NASA wants to build a permanent base on the moon by the 2030s — a place astronauts could stay for extended visits at the lunar south pole.

But according to a new study, any astronauts who go there would face levels of radiation nearly three times higher than what the astronauts on the space station deal with. In high enough doses, long-term exposure to this

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Buried lakes of liquid water discovered on Mars

Three underground lakes have been detected near the south pole of Mars.

Scientists also confirmed the existence of a fourth lake – the presence of which was hinted at in 2018.

Liquid water is vital for biology, so the finding will be of interest to researchers studying the potential for life elsewhere in the Solar System.

But the lakes are also thought to be extremely salty, which could make it difficult for any microbial life to survive in them.

Mars’ thin atmosphere means that the presence of liquid water on the surface is a near-impossibility. But water could remain liquid below ground.

The latest discovery was made using data from a radar instrument on the European Space Agency’s (Esa) Mars Express spacecraft, which has been orbiting the Red Planet since December 2003.

In 2018, researchers used data from the Marsis radar to report signs of a 20km-wide subsurface lake located

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Are there super salty lakes on Mars? Research suggests buried reservoir near south pole

The existence of liquid water on Mars — one of the more hotly debated matters about our cold, red neighbor — is looking increasingly likely.

New research published Monday in the journal Nature Astronomy indicates that there really is a buried reservoir of super salty water near the south pole. Scientists say such a lake would significantly improve the likelihood that Mars just might harbor microscopic life of its own.

Some scientists remain unconvinced that what’s been seen is liquid water, but the latest study adds weight to a tentative 2018 finding from radar maps of the planet’s crust made by the Mars Express robot orbiter.

That research suggested that an underground “lake” of liquid water had pooled beneath frozen layers of sediment near the south pole — akin to the subglacial lakes detected beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets on Earth.

Image: Mars south polar ice cap (Bj?rn Schreiner - FU Berlin / ESA)
Image: Mars south polar ice cap (Bj?rn
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125 million-year-old dinosaur found buried by a volcanic eruption in China

The new species of burrowing dinosaur was discovered in the Lujiatun Beds, the oldest layers of the famous Yixian Formation in northeast China, according to a news release. Scientists believe that they were trapped by a volcanic eruption while resting at the bottom of their burrows.

“These animals were quickly covered by fine sediment while they were still alive or just after their death,” palaeontologist Pascal Godefroit of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, said.

The two preserved skeletons (A/B and C) of Changmiania liaoningensis. Red arrows indicate gastrolith, or stone clusters.

The scientist said that the effect would be very similar to what happened in Pompeii. The new species was named Changmiania liaoningensis, according to the news release. Changmian means “eternal sleep” in Chinese.

Scientists deduce that the ornithopod lived during the Cretaceous period and that it was a small herbivore that could run very fast, based on the length of its tail and its leg composition. It was about 1.2 meters (about 4 feet)

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