It is assumed that the brain has homeostatic mechanisms to prevent the depletion of cellular energy, required for all cellular activities. For example, the blood flow increases, and oxygen and glucose are actively delivered in the brain region in which neural firing activity occurs. Besides, the cerebral blood flow and glucose uptake into the cells fluctuate accompanying the variations of cellular activities in the brain across the sleep-wake states of animals. Under these brain energy homeostatic mechanisms, it is assumed that the cellular energy status in the brain could be maintained constant in all physiological conditions including across the sleep-wake states of animals. However, this has not been experimentally proven.
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To investigate whether the cellular energy status in the brain of living animals is always constant or variated, the researchers measured the neuronal intracellular concentration of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), the major cellular energy metabolite, using a fluorescent sensor in the
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Our thoughts, feelings, and movements are controlled by billions of neurons talking to each other at trillions of specialized communication points called synapses. In an in-depth study of neurons grown in laboratory petri dishes, National Institutes of Health researchers discovered how the chattiest of some synapses find the energy to support intense conversations thought to underlie learning and memory. Their results, published in Nature Metabolism, suggest that a series of chemical reactions control a feedback loop that senses the need for more energy and replenishes it by recruiting cellular powerplants, called mitochondria, to the synapses. The experiments were performed by researchers in a lab led by Zu-Hang Sheng, Ph.D., at the NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
The team studied synapses that use the neurotransmitter glutamate to communicate. Communication happens when a packet of glutamate is released from presynaptic boutons which are tiny protrusions that stick
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Companies verify initial C-V2X tests based on 3GPP Release 14
SANTA ROSA, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–
Keysight Technologies, Inc. (NYSE: KEYS), a leading technology company that helps enterprises, service providers and governments accelerate innovation to connect and secure the world, announced that the company is working with Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and SGS to help advance testing of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) technology.
The three companies focused on test cases covering radio frequency (RF) and radio resource management (RRM) performance verification of devices used for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) deployment scenarios. The test cases, based on 3rd generation partnership projects’ (3GPP) Release 14 specifications, support C-V2X test plans prescribed by the OmniAir Consortium and the Global Certification Forum (GCF). In August 2020, SGS used Keysight’s RF/RRM DVT & Conformance Toolset and the Qualcomm® Snapdragon™ Automotive 4G Platform to verify initial test cases at the certification company’s lab in San Diego. The Snapdragon Automotive
Scientists have developed a new technique using tools made of luminescent DNA, lit up like fireflies, to visualize the mechanical forces of cells at the molecular level. Nature Methods published the work, led by chemists at Emory University, who demonstrated their technique on human blood platelets in laboratory experiments.
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“Normally, an optical microscope cannot produce images that resolve objects smaller than the length of a light wave, which is about 500 nanometers,” says Khalid Salaita, Emory professor of chemistry and senior author of the study. “We found a way to leverage recent advances in optical imaging along with our molecular DNA sensors to capture forces at 25 nanometers. That resolution is akin to being on the moon and seeing the ripples caused by raindrops hitting the surface of a lake on the Earth.”
Almost every biological process involves a mechanical component, from cell division to blood clotting to mounting an