Explaining the science behind this year’s Nobel Prizes for Chemistry and Physics | The Hindu In Focus podcast

In this second part of a two-episode series on the Nobel Prizes, we go into the Chemistry and Physics 2020 awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna, for discovering one of gene technology’s sharpest tools: the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors.

Also read our explainer on the Chemistry Nobel 2020:

And for physics, British mathematician-physicist Roger Penrose received half of this year’s prize “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”, as the the Nobel Committee put it. German Reinhard Genzel and American Andrea Ghez received the second half of the prize “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the center of our galaxy.” We explain the science behind both awards.

Also read our explainer on the Physics Nobel 2020:

 

Guest: T.V. Venkateshwaran, Science Communicator, Senior Scientist at Vigyan Prasar, New Delhi.

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Five ‘Citation Laureates’ Awarded 2020 Nobel Honors for Physics, Chemistry and Economics

59 researchers named as ‘Citation Laureates’ have won Nobel honors since 2002

LONDON, Oct. 13, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Clarivate Plc (NYSE:CCC), a global leader in providing trusted information and insights to accelerate the pace of innovation, today celebrates the five extremely highly cited ‘Citation Laureates™’ who have been named as 2020 Nobel prize winners – demonstrating once again, the association between citations in the literature, influence through a research community, and peer judgement.

The quantitative and qualitative analysis from Clarivate is regularly cited, as a predictive weathervane as to who may receive Nobel honors each year.  Since 2002, 59 named individuals have gone on to receive Nobel prizes.

The five Citation Laureates named as Nobel Laureates in 2020 are:

  • The 2020 Nobel prize for Physics awarded to Roger Penrose, University of Oxford, UK for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general
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Nobel Prize Winners In Chemistry And Physics Discuss Shattering Gender Norm, Redefining Women’s Roles

The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded 119 years ago, and on Wednesday for the first time in its history, two women won without having to share the prize with a man. Their groundbreaking development may shift the perception of women in scientific roles, and continue to disrupt the centuries-old mindset that women are second to men in innovation or in any field. 

Dr. Jennifer Doudna, a biochemist at UC Berkeley and French researcher Dr. Emmanuelle Charpentier of the Max Planch Institute accepted the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing the CRISPR-Cas9 genetic scissors, a

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Science behind medicine and chemistry Nobels, and hepatitis C & its treatment in India



a close up of a coin


© Provided by The Print


New Delhi: Harvey Alter and Charles Rice from the US, and Michael Houghton from the UK won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering the hepatitis C virus.

The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared, for the first time, by two women — French microbiologist, geneticist, and biochemist Emmanuelle Charpentier and American biochemist Jennifer A. Doudna, for inventing a genetic ‘scissors’ that allows scientists to ‘cut and paste’ inside a genome sequence.

In episode 588 of ‘Cut the Clutter’, ThePrint’s Editor-in-Chief Shekhar Gupta decodes the science behind the two wins.

Hepatitis C virus discovery

Harvey Alter, the chief infectious diseases investigator at National Institute of Health in the US, did a lot of his early work at a big blood banking system in Bethesda, Maryland on the outskirts of Washington, DC in the 1970s.

Michael Houghton is head of Li Ka Shing Virology Institute

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Mario Molina, Mexico chemistry Nobel winner, dies at 77

MEXICO CITY (AP) — Mario Molina, winner of the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1995 and the only Mexican scientist to be honored with a Nobel, died Wednesday in his native Mexico City. He was 77 years old.

Molina’s faamily announced his death in a brief statement through the institute that carried his name. It did not give a cause of death.

He won the prize along with scientists Frank Sherwood Rowland of the United States and Paul Crutzen of the Netherlands for their research into climate change.

Molina and Rowland published a paper in 1974 that saw the thinning of the ozone layer as a consequence of chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, chemicals used in a range of products.


Molina’s work contributed to the drafting of the first international treaty on the subject, the Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of the chemicals. Later, he focused on confronting air pollution

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What is CRISPR? A close look at the gene editing technology that won the Chemistry Nobel prize

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences yesterday awarded the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna for their work on CRISPR, a method of genome editing.

A genome is the full set of genetic “instructions” that determine how an organism will develop. Using CRISPR, researchers can cut up DNA in an organism’s genome and edit its sequence.

CRISPR technology is a powerhouse for basic research and is also changing the world we live in. There are thousands of research papers published every year on its various applications.

These include accelerating research into cancers, mental illness, potential animal to human organ transplants, better food production, eliminating malaria-carrying mosquitoes and saving animals from disease.

Charpentier is the director at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin, Germany and Doudna is a professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Both played a crucial role in demonstrating how

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Biocom Celebrates the Winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020

Biocom, the association representing the life science industry of California, issued the following statement regarding the announcement that the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Jennifer Doudna, Ph.D. of the University of California, Berkeley and Emmanuelle Charpentier, Ph.D. of the Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens for their discovery of the genetic scissors CRISPR/Cas9.

“Since the discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 by Drs. Doudna and Charpentier – a result of resilience, curiosity and unfettered innovation – this genome editing tool has revolutionized the field of genetics,” said Joe Panetta, president and CEO of Biocom. “Dr. Doudna is an important visionary in the Bay Area and beyond, and her recognition speaks to the booming innovation in California’s unparalleled life science industry. Drs. Doudna and Charpentier have cemented themselves as tremendous role models for all women in STEM. Without their demonstrated determination, creativity and exploratory spirit, such game-changing scientific breakthroughs and

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Cocktail Chemistry: 10 Science-Backed Tips for the Perfect Drink

To the average cocktail lover, the action behind a bar counter can seem full of magic and mystery. There’s a quick sprig of this and a small splash of that, followed by loud, vigorous shaking or a few stirs, then out pours a perfectly formed beverage. At first sip you know: There’s no way you could make anything this good at home. 

Lately, with the weather getting cooler, and no end to this pandemic in sight, many of us are missing our neighborhood haunts. Though some bars are selling cocktails to go, many of us are on our own. If we want to drink a perfect Negroni this Halloween, we’ll have to make it ourselves.

Luckily, making cocktails isn’t magic, it’s science. A great bar is just a chemistry lab; each cocktail, a perfectly replicable concoction.

To help unravel the science of drinking, Discover talked with Kevin Liu, author of

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Winner Of Nobel Prize In Chemistry Discusses Her Discovery Of CRISPR As A Genome Editing Technology

Jennifer Doudna, a professor at the University of California-Berkeley, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry Wednesday for her pioneering research in CRISPR gene editing. She is receiving the prize with Emmanuelle Charpentier of the Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens in Berlin.

Doudna and Charpentier discovered that the CRISPR-Cas9 protein works as genetic scissors, which researchers can use to make changes to the DNA. Their research can contribute to new cancer therapies and represents a major advancement towards curing genetic diseases such as sickle cell disease.

“Working on the project with Emmanuelle — once we understood how the CRISPR-Cas9 protein works as a programmable system in enzyme [and] in bacteria to cut DNA and that we could control where it cuts DNA by changing its little molecular zip code that directs it to particular sequences — that’s when we really understood that this had the potential to be

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CRISPR gene editing pioneers win the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

CRISPR gene editing promises to revolutionize medical science, and two of its pioneers are getting a prestigious award for their efforts. Emmanuelle Charpentier (shown at left) and Jennifer Doudna (right) have received the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in discovering the CRISPR/Cas9 “genetic scissors” used to cut DNA. Charpentier found the key tracrRNA molecule that bacteria use to cut and disable viruses, and collaborated with RNA expert Doudna to eventually ‘reprogram’ the scissors to cut any DNA molecule at a specific point, making the gene editing method viable.

As with some scientific discoveries, there’s some controversy. While the team including Charpentier and Doudna published its work in June 2012, seven months before a Broad Institute-led group released its own findings, it didn’t include certain aspects Broad used when it started patenting gene editing methods in 2014. That led to a patent battle that’s still raging today, with

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