Effects of low-level lead exposure and alcohol consumption — ScienceDaily

A new IU study examining effects of low-level developmental lead exposure in mice could explain why some people dependent on alcohol return to using.

The study, published in Neuropharmacology, looked at whether developmental lead exposure can increase the propensity to relapse to alcohol consumption in mice. The researchers also looked at the effects on the expression of synaptic and non-synaptic glutamate transporters — regulators of brain motivation and reinforcing circuits — in brain regions associated with drug addiction.

“Our data in mice suggests that early life, low-level lead exposure does not lead to the development of an alcohol use disorder in adults per se,” said Stephen Boehm, professor in the Department of Psychology at IUPUI. “However, it does alter brain circuits in such a way that once a dependency is developed, it makes it harder to refrain from turning back to alcohol.”

Although there have been efforts to reduce

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Effects of poverty on childhood development seen in children as young as 5 — ScienceDaily

In a nationwide study, UCLA researchers have found that health inequities can be measured in children as young as 5 years old. The research, published in Health Affairs, contributes to a growing body of literature finding that children of color who are also poor face greater health inequities than their white counterparts.

Researchers trained kindergarten teachers in 98 school districts across the United States to administer the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a measure of children’s physical, social, emotional and language development.

The assessment was administered to more than 185,000 kindergarteners from 2010 to 2017. After analyzing and correlating the results according to where the children lived, the investigators found that 30 percent of children in the lowest-income neighborhoods were vulnerable in one or more domains of health development, compared to 17 percent of children in higher-income settings.

The researchers also found that income-related differences in developmental vulnerability varied substantially

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Has COVID-19 knocked us onto our backsides? Researchers study pandemic’s effects on physical activity and sedentary behavior — ScienceDaily

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, most universities across the United States transitioned from face-to-face classes to remote learning, closed campuses and sent students home this past spring. Such changes, coupled with social distancing guidelines, have altered social interactions and limited our access to fitness facilities, parks and gymnasiums. This is concerning as positive social interaction and access to exercise facilities both promote physical activity. Recently, a group of Kent State University researchers sought to examine the impact of these pandemic-related changes upon physical activity and sedentary behavior, specifically sitting, across the university population.

Kent State’s College of Education, Health and Human Services professors Jacob Barkley, Ph.D., Andrew Lepp, Ph.D., and Ellen Glickman, Ph.D., along with current and former Kent State doctoral students Greg Farnell, Ph.D., Jake Beiting, Ryan Wiet and Bryan Dowdell, Ph.D., assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior. More than 400 college

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Scientists investigate black carbon effects on climate in the Arctic during winter and spring

arctic
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

As an important light-absorbing aerosol, black carbon (BC) can affect the energy balance of the earth-atmosphere system via direct and indirect radiative forcing. When BC deposits on snow and ice, it can trigger BC-snow/ice feedbacks, further affecting climate.


The Arctic region is especially sensitive to climate change, and previous studies found that increases in BC emissions may contribute to the amplification of Arctic warming. 

Recently, a research team led by Prof. Kang Shichang from the Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources (NIEER) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), in cooperation with researchers from Sun Yat-sen University, explored the responses of meteorology and atmospheric stability to BC-cloud-radiation interactions in the Arctic preliminarily based on a regional climate-chemistry model (WRF-Chem).  

WRF-Chem reproduced the temporal variations of meteorological variables and BC concentration well. Results showed that BC concentrations in the Arctic in winter were mostly higher than those

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Ocean warming and acidification effects on calcareous phytoplankton communities

IMAGE

IMAGE: Examples of normally formed (a, c) and malformed (b, d) specimens of E. huxleyi (above) and R. clavigera (below) observed in the mesocosm samples
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Credit: ICTA-UAB

A new study led by researchers from the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB) warns that the negative effects of rapid ocean warming on planktonic communities will be exacerbated by ocean acidification.

The research, recently published in the journal Scientific Reports of Nature, shows that some of the major environmental changes projected for this century in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g., ocean acidification, ocean warming, and the increasingly frequent marine heatwaves in summer) can have adverse effects on the productivity of calcifying phytoplankton communities (coccolithophores).

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by human activities have alarmingly increased in the past decades. A quarter of this anthropogenic CO2 has been absorbed by the

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Mosquitos lost an essential gene with no ill effects

Mosquitos lost an essential gene with no ill effects
The exoskeletons of a normal mosquito larva on the left and a mosquito larva with the gooseberry gene edited out on the right. Credit: Alys Jarvela/University of Maryland.

University of Maryland entomologists discovered that a gene critical for survival in other insects is missing in mosquitos—the gene responsible for properly arranging the insects’ segmented bodies. The researchers also found that a related gene evolved to take over the missing gene’s job. Although laboratory studies have shown that similar genes can be engineered to substitute for one another, this is the first time that scientists identified a gene that naturally evolved to perform the same critical function as a related gene long after the two genes diverged down different evolutionary paths.


The work emphasizes the importance of caution in genetic studies that use model animals to make conclusions across different species. It also points to a new potential avenue for research

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Technology group BCM with revenue growth in the first half of 2020 despite effects of the COVID-19 pandemic

DGAP-News: Brockhaus Capital Management AG / Key word(s): Half Year Results
29.09.2020 / 07:00
The issuer is solely responsible for the content of this announcement.

PRESS RELEASE

Technology group BCM with revenue growth in the first half of 2020 despite effects of the COVID-19 pandemic

– BCM Group achieves revenue of € 23.2 million; +1% growth compared to H1 2019

– Previous expectation of a “revenue decline in the high single-digit percentage range” for H1 2020 was clearly exceeded

– Environmental Technologies segment (Palas) with strong operating development

– Security Technologies segment (IHSE) due to project postponements on the customer side broadly at prior-year level

Frankfurt/Main, September 29, 2020. Brockhaus Capital Management AG (BKHT, ISIN: DE000A2GSU42, “BCM”), a long-term oriented technology group focused on acquiring high-margin and high-growth technology champions within the German Mittelstand, published its results for the first half of 2020 on September 29, 2020.

In the first

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long-term effects on tundra vegetation — ScienceDaily

Landslides have long-term effects on tundra vegetation, a new study shows. Conducting the study in North West Siberia, the researchers found that tundra vegetation regenerated rapidly after a major landslide event in 1989. Two decades later, differences in the vegetation of the landslide area and the areas surrounding it have evened out, but even after 30 years, the vegetation of the landslide area is nowhere close to the vegetation of the surrounding areas.

Several studies have reported changes in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Arctic regions. So far, remote sensing data that is used to calculate the NDVI hasn’t been able to discern, in detail, landscape level factors that have an effect on, e.g., greening.

“Landslides caused by the thawing of permafrost will become increasingly common in North West Siberia and elsewhere in the Arctic, too. These are caused by climate change and they also have an effect

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Death counts fail to capture full mortality effects of COVID-19, study finds — ScienceDaily

More than 200,000 people in the U.S. have died from COVID-19. Some argue that statistic is inaccurate due to inconsistencies in how deaths are being reported. But researchers from the University of South Florida claim that even if those deaths have been correctly measured, the number doesn’t fully convey the true mortality effects of COVID-19.

A study published in the Journal of Public Health finds that for each person in the U.S. who died after contracting COVID-19, an average of nearly 10 years of life had been lost. Researchers claim “years of life lost” is a more insightful measure than death count since it accounts for the ages of the deceased. The tool is often used to determine the effects of non-communicable disease, drug misuse and suicide. They believe “years of life lost” is especially appropriate given the range of ages at which individuals have died of COVID-19.

“While death

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