Explaining the science behind this year’s Nobel Prizes for Chemistry and Physics | The Hindu In Focus podcast

In this second part of a two-episode series on the Nobel Prizes, we go into the Chemistry and Physics 2020 awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna, for discovering one of gene technology’s sharpest tools: the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors.

Also read our explainer on the Chemistry Nobel 2020:

And for physics, British mathematician-physicist Roger Penrose received half of this year’s prize “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”, as the the Nobel Committee put it. German Reinhard Genzel and American Andrea Ghez received the second half of the prize “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the center of our galaxy.” We explain the science behind both awards.

Also read our explainer on the Physics Nobel 2020:

 

Guest: T.V. Venkateshwaran, Science Communicator, Senior Scientist at Vigyan Prasar, New Delhi.

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Five ‘Citation Laureates’ Awarded 2020 Nobel Honors for Physics, Chemistry and Economics

59 researchers named as ‘Citation Laureates’ have won Nobel honors since 2002

LONDON, Oct. 13, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Clarivate Plc (NYSE:CCC), a global leader in providing trusted information and insights to accelerate the pace of innovation, today celebrates the five extremely highly cited ‘Citation Laureates™’ who have been named as 2020 Nobel prize winners – demonstrating once again, the association between citations in the literature, influence through a research community, and peer judgement.

The quantitative and qualitative analysis from Clarivate is regularly cited, as a predictive weathervane as to who may receive Nobel honors each year.  Since 2002, 59 named individuals have gone on to receive Nobel prizes.

The five Citation Laureates named as Nobel Laureates in 2020 are:

  • The 2020 Nobel prize for Physics awarded to Roger Penrose, University of Oxford, UK for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general
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Nobel Prize Winners In Chemistry And Physics Discuss Shattering Gender Norm, Redefining Women’s Roles

The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded 119 years ago, and on Wednesday for the first time in its history, two women won without having to share the prize with a man. Their groundbreaking development may shift the perception of women in scientific roles, and continue to disrupt the centuries-old mindset that women are second to men in innovation or in any field. 

Dr. Jennifer Doudna, a biochemist at UC Berkeley and French researcher Dr. Emmanuelle Charpentier of the Max Planch Institute accepted the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing the CRISPR-Cas9 genetic scissors, a

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3 scientists win Nobel physics prize for black hole research

STOCKHOLM (AP) — Three scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics Tuesday for establishing the all-too-weird reality of black holes — the straight-out-of-science-fiction cosmic monsters that suck up light and time and will eventually swallow us, too.

Roger Penrose of Britain, Reinhard Genzel of Germany and Andrea Ghez of the United States explained to the world these dead ends of the cosmos that are still not completely understood but are deeply connected, somehow, to the creation of galaxies.

Penrose, an 89-year-old at the University of Oxford, received half of the prize for proving with mathematics in 1964 that Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicted the formation of black holes, even though Einstein himself didn’t think they existed.

Genzel, who is at both the Max Planck Institute in Germany and the University of California, Berkeley, and Ghez, of the University of California, Los Angeles, received the other half of the prize

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3 Scientists Win Nobel Physics Prize for Black Hole Research | Science News

By DAVID KEYTON, SETH BORENSTEIN and FRANK JORDANS, Associated Press

STOCKHOLM (AP) — Three scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics Tuesday for establishing the all-too-weird reality of black holes — the straight-out-of-science-fiction cosmic monsters that suck up light and time and will eventually swallow us, too.

Roger Penrose of Britain, Reinhard Genzel of Germany and Andrea Ghez of the United States explained to the world these dead ends of the cosmos that are still not completely understood but are deeply connected, somehow, to the creation of galaxies.

Penrose, an 89-year-old at the University of Oxford, received half of the prize for proving with mathematics in 1964 that Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicted the formation of black holes, even though Einstein himself didn’t think they existed.

Genzel, who is at both the Max Planck Institute in Germany and the University of California, Berkeley, and Ghez, of the University of

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2020 Nobel Physics Winners Helped Find Black Holes

An awful lot of time elapsed between the day Roger Penrose was walking to work in 1964 and the moment his phone rang while he was in the shower on the morning of Oct. 6, 2020. Back then, his walk was interrupted by “some strange feeling of elation,” as he told the Associated Press yesterday, about the moment he had his first glimmers of insight into the equations that would eventually make him famous. It was surely with another kind of elation that he answered his phone yesterday to learn that those same equations—which were the first to prove the existence of black holes—had earned the 89-year-old University of Oxford mathematical physicist the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Penrose was not alone alone in his delight. Also honored this year were astronomers Andrea Ghez, 55, of the University of California, Los Angeles; and Reinhard Genzel, 68, of the Max

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Black Hole Scientists Receive 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics

  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2020 to three scientists for their groundbreaking work on black holes.
  • Mathematician Roger Penrose will split the prize with the astrophysicists Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez.
  • Penrose solidified the mathematical understanding of black holes—proving Einstein was, in fact, correct—while Genzel and Ghez are credited with discovering Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way.

    A trio of scientists received the call of a lifetime this morning. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics to three researchers for their work unraveling the mystery and majesty of one of the universe’s strangest phenomena.

    “This year’s prize celebrates the discovery of one of the most exotic objects in our universe: the black hole,” David Haviland, the chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics, said during a press conference in Stockholm, Sweden.

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    Three Scientists Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for Discovering Black Holes | Smart News

    Black holes are cosmic phenomena that never fail to capture the world’s attention and curiosity. Millions of these galactic beasts are peppered throughout the universe, and their gravitational force is so strong that not even light can escape. This morning, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to three scientists for their research that illuminated details of black holes’ existence and function in the universe.

    Roger Penrose, a cosmologist and professor emeritus at the University of Oxford in England, received half of the award for demonstrating that black holes exist—an idea that even Albert Einstein himself was skeptical of. The other half of the award was jointly awarded to Reinhard Genzel, the director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, and Andrea Ghez, an astronomer professor at the University of California in Los Angeles, for discovering a supermassive black hole at the

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    Black hole revelations win the 2020 Nobel Prize in physics

    Research that unveiled the most mysterious objects in the cosmos has garnered science’s highest honor.

    Three scientists who cemented the reality of black holes have been jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. Roger Penrose of the University of Oxford, Reinhard Genzel of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany and Andrea Ghez of UCLA will split the prize, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced October 6.

    Black holes are marked by a gravitational field so strong that nothing can escape once it falls within. At their centers, black holes harbor a puzzling zone called a singularity, where the laws of physics cease to make sense. 

    Black holes “really represent the breakdown of our physical understanding of the laws of physics. That’s part of the intrigue,” Ghez said via a phone call during the announcement. Studying the exotic objects “really pushes forward on our understanding of

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    Trio win Nobel Prize for physics for groundbreaking black hole discoveries

    LONDON — Three scientists have won the Nobel Prize in physics for groundbreaking research into black holes, the spacetime phenomena that have long consumed the imagination of both scientists and fiction writers.

    Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez’s work has helped reveal “the darkest secrets of the universe,” said Secretary-General Göran K. Hansson for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences when announcing the winners on Tuesday.

    Penrose, a British mathematical physicist at the University of Oxford, has been honored “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity,” the prize committee said.

    Building on Nobel laureate Albert Einstein’s

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