“I have taken pains to verify this assertion, and have found it true that frogs, toads, and newts are absent from most oceanic islands”—thus states Charles Darwin in his well-known work “On the Origin of Species.” For a long time, this observation by the famous naturalist also held true for the Galápagos Islands, which are inextricably linked to his name. “This only changed with the arrival of Fowler’s snouted treefrog Scinax quinquefasciatus on the archipelago in 1997 or 1998,” explains Dr. habil. Raffael Ernst of the Senckenberg Natural History Collections in Dresden, and he continues, “In our study, we examined the interactions of this newcomer with the local, primarily endemic fauna on Galápagos.”
Ernst and his colleagues were curious to find out what role this 33-to-38-millimeter-long frog plays within the island fauna’s food
(Bloomberg) — In Jordan, Sandvine Inc.’s equipment was used to censor an LGBTQ website. Egypt’s government relied on Sandvine equipment to block access to independent news sites. In Azerbaijan, it was deployed for a social media blackout, current and former employees say.
Last month, U.S. -based Sandvine, which is owned by the private equity firm Francisco Partners, said it would stop selling its equipment in Belarus after Bloomberg News reported that it was used to censor the internet during a crucial election. In explaining its decision, the company said it abhors “the use of technology to suppress the free flow of information resulting in human rights violations.”
But the company’s equipment — which is often used to manage the flow of network traffic — has
The Bolshevik tendency emerged out of the struggle led politically by Lenin (and, in the sphere of philosophy, by Plekhanov) against revisionist and opportunist tendencies within the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. Lenin (basing himself on the position developed earlier by Kautsky, the principal theoretician of the SPD) insisted that socialist consciousness did not develop spontaneously within the working class, but had to be brought into the workers’ movement. In his seminal work, What Is To Be Done? Lenin cited the following critical passage from the program of the Austrian Social-Democratic Party:
…Modern socialist consciousness can only arise on the basis of profound scientific knowledge. Indeed, modern economic science is as much a condition for socialist production as, say, modern technology, and the proletariat can create neither the one nor the other, no matter how much it may desire to do so; both arise out of the modern
A remote structure consisting of a supermassive black hole, several primordial galaxies, and copious amounts of gas finally explains how some of the earliest black holes were able to grow so quickly.
The deeper we look into space, the further we look back into time. In this case, astronomers have caught a glimpse of the universe when it was just a toddler—a mere 900 million years after the Big Bang. Using a batch of powerful telescopes, and after a decade’s worth of astronomical observations, an international team of scientists has confirmed the presence of multiple primordial galaxies caught under the influence of an unusually large and bright supermassive black hole, the light from which took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth.
Astronomers have discovered six galaxies ensnared in the cosmic “spider’s web” of a supermassive black hole soon after the Big Bang, according to research published Thursday that could help explain the development of these enigmatic monsters.
Black holes that emerged early in the history of the Universe are thought to have formed from the collapse of the first stars, but astronomers have puzzled over how they expanded into giants.
The newly discovered black hole — which dates from when the Universe was not even a billion years old — weighs in at one billion times the mass of our Sun and was spotted by the European Southern Observatory (ESO).
Scientists said the finding helps provide an explanation for how supermassive black holes such as the one at the centre of our Milky Way may have developed.
This is because astronomers believe the filaments trapping the cluster of galaxies are carrying
Oct. 1 (UPI) — Using the Very Large Telescope, a powerful observatory in Chile, astronomers have identified six galaxies trapped in the web of a supermassive black hole when the universe was just 900 million years old.
The discovery, described Thursday in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, helps explain how supermassive black holes got so big so soon after the Big Bang.
“This research was mainly driven by the desire to understand some of the most challenging astronomical objects — supermassive black holes in the early universe,” lead study author Marco Mignoli said in a news release.
“These are extreme systems and to date we have had no good explanation for their existence,” said Mignoli, an astronomer at the National Institute for Astrophysics in Italy.
The findings lend support to the theory that web-like structures of gas fueled the rapid growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe. When
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The first billion years of the universe was about as chaotic as Tuesday’s first presidential debate. Galaxies were forming, gas was flowing… It was a real time. While we won’t want to look back on Tuesday too often, we do like to look back in time. And, in a cosmic sense, Earth is perfectly positioned to do so. Because of how long it takes light to travel across the universe, our telescopes can pick up the faint signals of what life was like in the universe’s very early days.
On Thursday, astronomers announced the discovery of a massive, intriguing structure from when the universe was just 900 million years old. The structure, about 300 times the size of the Milky Way, contains a supermassive black hole that has ensnared six
With the help of ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have found six galaxies lying around a supermassive black hole when the Universe was less than a billion years old. This is the first time such a close grouping has been seen so soon after the Big Bang and the finding helps us better understand how supermassive black holes, one of which exists at the centre of our Milky